### Study Material & Notes for the Chapter 11

## COMPANY - ACCOUNTING RATIOS

#### I. LIQUIDITY RATIOS

##### A. Meaning

- The term liquidity refers to the ability of the company to meet its current liabilities.
- Liquidity ratios are financial ratios that help in analyzing the ability of a business entity to meet its short-term obligations/liabilities.
- Liquidity ratios measure the firms’ ability to fulfil short term commitments out of its liquid assets
- These are analysed by looking at the amounts of current assets and current liabilities in the balance sheet.
- Higher ratio means better capacity to meet its current obligation.

##### B. Type

###### 1. Current Ratio

###### 2. Liquid Ratio

##### C. Current Ratio

###### a. Meaning

- The Current ratio measures the ability of a company to pay its current liabilities using its current assets.
- A higher Current ratio indicates that the company has sufficient current assets to meet its current liabilities.

###### b. Formula

- It is calculated by dividing Current Assets by Current Liabilities.
**Current Ratio**= Current AssetsCurrent Liabilities**Current Assets**= Current Investments + Inventories (excluding stores & spares and Loose tools) + Trade Receivables (Net of provisions) + Cash & Cash equivalents + Short Term Loans & Advances + Other Current Assets**Current Liabilities**= Short Term Borrowings + Trade Payables + Other Current Liabilities + Short Term Provisions**Working Capital**= Current Assets – Current Liabilities

###### c. Important Considerations

- The ratio is expressed pure i.e. 2:1
- The ideal range for the Current ratio is 2:1
- A Current ratio of less than 1 indicates that the company may have difficulty meeting its current liabilities.
- Higher Current ratio means better capacity to meet its current obligations.
- Very high Current ratio shows funds idleness

##### D. Liquid Ratio

###### a. Meaning

- The Liquid ratio is a more stringent measure of liquidity. It measures the ability of a company to meet its current liabilities using its quick assets, which include cash, marketable securities, and accounts receivable.
- Its based on highly liquid assets that can be converted into cash quickly
- The Liquid ratio is also known as Quick ratio or Acid-test ratio.

###### b. Formula

- It is calculated by dividing Liquid Assets by Current Liabilities.

**Liquid Ratio =**Liquid Assets**/**Current Liabilities

**Liquid Assets**= Current Investments + Trade Receivables (Net of provisions) + Cash & Cash equivalents + Short Term Loans & Advances + Other Current Assets excluding Prepaid Expenses

**Current Liabilities =**Short Term Borrowings + Trade Payables + Other Current Liabilities + Short Term Provisions**Liquid Assets**= Current Assets – Inventories – Prepaid Expenses

###### c. Important Considerations

- The ratio is expressed pure i.e. 2:1
- The ideal range for the Liquid ratio is 1.5 : 1
- A Liquid ratio less than 1 indicates that the company may have difficulty meeting its current liabilities even if all of its current assets are liquidated.
- Higher Liquid ratio means better capacity to meet its current obligations.
- Very high Liquid ratio shows funds idleness